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[转帖]国家地理摄影师教你如何把握曝光时间

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发表于 2014-3-4 09:23:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  
    在摄影过程中,相机的光圈值和快门速度设置相当重要。光圈值主要用来控制光线穿过孔的大小,而快门速度则是控制光线投射到胶卷上的时间。只有将二者都设置得恰到好处,才能达到最令人满意的曝光效果。关于快门速度的控制和选择,说得通俗一点,快门就相当于遮挡在胶卷前面的一张帘子,根据门帘打开的大小来决定投射到胶卷上的光线强弱,将这个大小控制用时间来控制就是所谓的快门速度。

    一个摄影师一张照片,国家地理著名摄影师Annie Griffiths Belt搜集了10位国家地理杂志摄影师的作品,为你点评分析他们拍摄照片时的思路,这次她将教我们如何设置合适的快门速度让时间停止,一起来学习吧。

    Annie Griffiths Belt,在明尼苏达州长大,毕业于美国明尼苏达大学摄影专业学士学位。上学期间就开始了摄影生涯,当时在明尼苏达日报工作。1976年毕业后,Belt加入了Worthington环球日报社。曾获得过国家摄影协会、美联社、国际妇女组织和白宫摄影家学会授予的奖项。她的作品还在纽约、莫斯科、东京等国家做过影展,她还定期在一些学校办讲座。她是国家地理杂志的第一位女性摄影师。

    罗马圆形大剧场,和许多标志性遗址一样,已经被拍摄过成千上万次。然而在这幅奇妙的照片中,希瑟?佩里用长时间的曝光使这个历史遗迹虚化并呈现出一个我们从未见过的画面。

    拍摄提示:每张照片实际上都采用了一定时间的曝光。照片可以是记录了几分之一秒或者几个小时的图像。许多人从未意识到他们能把时间作为一个创作性的工具运用到摄影里。记住快门的速度可以被调整成长时间曝光或者瞬间曝光。


  罗马 罗马圆形大剧场 摄影:Heather Perry,国家地理
     在这张克钦格拍摄的简单照片中,慢速曝光的相机记录了这个刚孵化出来的海龟游泳时动作,但瞬间曝光将会把这个海龟的一连串动作定格着一个动作。这个成像照片让我们对于这个小海龟的游泳留下了深刻的印象。

    拍摄提示:当按下快门,许多摄影师都没有意识到他们能过通过改变相机快门的速度来创造出不同影像的照片。一个慢速曝光可以记录下运动的过程,快门会捕捉到模糊运动中的一个瞬间。


  墨西哥 黑色海龟 摄影:Bill Curtsinger,国家地理
     曝光时间能够让我记录下我们不能够用裸眼看见的东西。在这张伊娃?木马特克和约翰?伊斯特考特夫妇拍摄的好看照片中,我们能看见这群野马以一种新的方式展现在我们的面前,模糊的脚,尾巴和鬃毛形成了真实的奔跑的场面。

    拍摄提示: 选择长时间曝光速度和跟踪发生中的动作的方法叫做移镜头拍摄。移动镜头拍摄的乐趣之一就是拍摄者永远不知道拍摄的照片最终的成像结果是怎样的。拍摄从某种意义上来说有时候能展现出我们肉眼无法看见的东西。


  美国怀俄明州 野马 摄影:Yva Momatiuk 、John Eastcott,Minden Pictures
     这幅布鲁斯?戴尔拍摄的灵动的照片让我们感到我们就在他身边正在移动的火车上。近处模糊的景象令人眩晕,但远处的景色却异常清晰。

    拍摄提示: 当从一个运动的物体上拍摄别处时,尝试用带有广角镜头的慢速曝光来拍摄。近景会比远处背景更快地虚化,拍摄出来的画面一定会让观者感到眩晕。


  新墨西哥科罗拉多边境 铁路轨道 摄影:Bruce Dale,国家地理
     虽然摄影师们经常在光线不好的情况无法拍摄出好的照片,但是慢速曝光有时能够拍摄出一个令人吃惊的照片,画面中的虚化的动作使得这类照片与众不同。乔?彼得斯堡拍摄的一对蜂鸟就是这种意外效果中成功的一例。

    拍摄提示:即使是拍摄野生动植物,低亮度和长时间的曝光也能拍出出乎意料和与众不同的画面。不要埋怨光线不好,利用它来拍摄创新性的照片吧。奇妙的事情就会发生!


  匈牙利 蜂鸟 摄影:Joe Petersburger,国家地理
     运用长时间曝光急流的河水呈现出一种奇妙的画布般的景象。在这幅照片中,我们看见奔流的河水绕着一片红色的枫叶打旋。通过运用慢速曝光让河水呈现出模糊的效果,摄影师迈克?山下勾勒出在一片抽象的水中一叶有着清晰线条的树叶的
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